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Eurocode Permanent loads and storage loads

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The self-weight of the structure is to be taken into account in the category of permanent loads. Just like the weight of the load-bearing structure, the weight of the non-load bearing elements (roofing, facade cladding, floors, etc.) is included in the category of permanent loads. The weights of stored materials, the volume of which may vary over the life of the building, belong to category E of imposed loads. The average densities of the main building materials or which can be stored are contained in the tables below.

Table A.1 - Construction materials-concrete and mortar
Materials Densityγ [kN/m3]
concrete (see EN 206)  
lightweight  
density class LC 1,0 9,0 to 10,0 1)2)
density class LC 1,2 10,0 to 12,0 1)2)
density class LC 1,4 12,0 to 14,0 1)2)
density class LC 1,6 14,0 to 16,0 1)2)
density class LC 1,8 16,0 to 18,0 1)2)
density class LC 2,0 18,0 to 20,0 1)2)
normal weight 24,01)2)
heavyweight >1)2)
mortar  
cement mortar 19,0 to 23,0
gypsum mortar 12,0 to 18,0
lime-cement mortar 18,0 to 20,0
lime mortar 12,0 to 18,0

1) Increase by 1 kN/m3 for normal percentage of reinforcing and pre-stressmg steel

2) Increase by 1 kN/m3 for unhardened concrete

NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.2 - Construction materials-masonry
Materials Density γ [kN/m3]
masonry units  
clay masonry units see EN 771-1
calcium silicate masonry units see EN 771-2
aggregate concrete masonry units see EN 771-3
autoclaved aerated masonry units see EN 771-4
manufactured stone masonry units see EN 771-5
glass blocks, hollow see EN 1051
terra cotta 21,0
natural stones, see pr EN 771-6  
    granite, syenite, porphyry 27,0 to 30,0
    basalt, diorite, gabbro 27,0 to 31,0
    tachylyte 26,0
    basaltic lava 24,0
    gray wacke, sandstone 21,0 to 27,0
    dense limestone 20,0 to 29,0
    other limestone 20,0
    volcanic tuff 20,0
    gneiss 30,0
    slate 28,0
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.3 - Construction materials-wood
Materials Density γ [kN/m3]
wood (see EN 338 for timber strength classes)  
timber strength class C14 3,5
timber strength class C16 3,7
timber strength class C18 3,8
timber strength class C22 4,1
timber strength class C24 4,2
timber strength class C27 4,5
timber strength class C30 4,6
timber strength class C35 4,8
timber strength class C40 5,0
timber strength class D30 6,4
timber strength class D35 6,7
timber strength class D40 7,0
timber strength class D50 7,8
timber strength class D60 8,4
timber strength class D70 10,8
glued laminated timber (see EN 1194 for Timber strength classes)  
homogenious glulam GL24h 3,7
homogenious glulam GL28h 4,0
homogenious glulam GL32h 4,2
homogenious glulam GL36h 4,4
combined glulam GL24c 3,5
combined glulam GL28c 3,7
combined glulam GL32c 4,0
combined glulam GL36c 4,2
plywood  
softwood plywood 5,0
birch plywood 7,0
laminboard and blockboard 4,5
particle boards  
chipboard 7,0 to 8,0
cement-bonded particle board 12,0
flake board, oriented strand board, wafer board 7,0
fibre building board  
hardboard, standard and tempered 10,0
medium density fibreboard 8,0
softboard 4,0
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.4 - Construction materials-metals
Materials Density γ [kN/m3]
metals  
aluminium 27,0
brass 83,0 to 85,0
bronze 83,0 to 85,0
copper 87,0 to 89,0
iron, cast 71,0 to 72,5
iron, wrought 76,0
lead 112,0 to 114,0
steel 77,0 to 78,5
zinc 71,0 to 72,0

Table A.5 - Construction materials- other materials
Materials Density γ [kN/m3]
other materials  
glass, broken 22,0
glass, in sheets 25,0
plastics  
acrylic sheet 12,0
polystyrene, expanded, granules 0,3
foam glass 1,4

Table A.6 - Bridge materials
Materials Density γ [kN/m3]
pavement of road bridges  
gussasphalt and asphaltic concrete 24,0 to 25,0
mastic asphalt 18,0 to 22,0
hot rolled asphalt 23,0
infills for bridges  
sand (dry) 15,0 to 16,01)
ballast, gravel (loose) 15,0 to 16,01)
hardcore 18,5 to 19,5
crushed slag 13,5 to 14,51)
packed stone rubble 20,5 to 21,5
puddle clay 18,5 to 19,5
pavement of rail bridges  
concrete protective layer 25,0
normal ballast (e.g. granite, gneiss, etc.) 20,0
basaltic ballast 26
  Weight per unit bed length 2)3) gk [kN/m]
structures with ballasted bed  
2 rails UIC 60 1,2
prestressed concrete sleeper with track fastenings 4,8
concrete sleepers with metal angle braces 4,2
timber sleepers with track fastenings 1,9
structures without ballasted bed  
2 rails UIC 60 with track fastenings 1,7
bridge beam and guard rails 4,9
  1. Given in other tables as stored materials
  2. Excludes an allowance for ballast
  3. Assumes a spacing of 600 mm

NOTE 1 The values for track are also applicable outside railway bridges.

NOTE 2 See Section 4.


Table A.7 - Stored materials - building and construction
Materials Density γ [kN/m3] Angle of repose ϕ [°]
aggregates( see EN 206)    
lightweight 9,0 to 20,0 1) 30
normal 20,0 to 30,0 30
heavyweight >30,0 30
gravel and sand, bulked 15,0 to 20,0 35
sand 14,0 to 19,0 30
blast furnace slag    
lumps 17,0 40
granules 12,0 30
crushed foamed 9,0 35
brick sand, crushed brick, broken bricks 15,0 35
vermiculite    
exfoliated, aggregate for concrete 1,0 -
crude 6,0 to 9,0 -
bentonite    
loose 8,0 40
shaken down 11,0 -
cement    
in bulk 16,0 28
in bag 15,0 -
fly ash 10,0 to 14,0 25
glass, in sheets 25,0 -
gypsum, ground 15,0 25
lignite filter ash 15,0 20
lime 13,0 25
limestone, powder 13,0 25 to 27
magnesite, ground 12,0 -
plastics    
polyethylene, polystyrol granulated 6,4 30
polyvinylchloride, powder 5,9 40
polyester resin 11,8 -
glue resins 13,0 -
water, fresh 10,0 -
1) see table A.1 for density classes of lightweight concrete
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.8 - Stored products - agricultural
Products Density γ [kN/m3] Angle of repose ϕ [°]
farmyard    
manure (minimum 60 % solids) 7,8 -
manure (with dry straw) 9,3 45
dry chicken manure 6,9 45
slurry (maximum 20 % solids) 10,8 -
fertiliser, artificial    
NPK, granulated 8,0 to 12,0 25
basic slag, crushed 13,7 35
phosphates, granulated 10,0 to 16,0 30
potassium sulphate 12,0 to 16,0 28
urea 7,0 to 8,0 24
fodder, green, loosely stacked 3,5 to 4,5 -
grain    
whole (≤ 14 % moisture content unless indicated otherwise)    
general 7,8 30
barley 7,0 30
brewer’s grain (wet) 8,8 -
herbage seeds 3,4 30
maize in bulk 7,4 30
maize in bags 5,0 -
oats 5,0 30
oilseed rape 6,4 25
rye 7,0 30
wheat in bulk 7,8 30
wheat in bags 7,5 -
grass cubes 7,8 40
hay    
(baled) 1,0 to 3,0 -
(rolled bales) 6,0 to 7,0 -
hides and skins 8,0 to 9,0 -
hops 1,0 to 2,0 25
malt 4,0 to 6,0 20
meal    
ground 7,0 45
cubes 7,0 40
peat    
dry, loose, shaken down 1,0 35
dry, compressed in bales 5,0 -
wet 9,5 -
silage 5,0 to 10,0 -
straw    
in bulk (dry) 0,7 -
baled 1,5 -
tobacco in bales 3,5 to 5,0 -
wool    
in bulk 3,0 -
baled 7,0 to 13,0 -
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.9 - Stored products - foodstuffs
Products Density γ [kN/m3] Angle of repose ϕ [°]
eggs, in stands 4,0 to 5,0 -
flour    
bulk 6,0 25
bagged 5,0 -
fruit    
apples    
- loose 8,3 30
- boxed 6,5 -
cherries 7,8 -
pears 5,9 -
raspberries, in trays 2,0 -
strawberries, in trays 1,2 -
tomatoes 6,8 -
sugar    
loose, piled 7,5 to 10,0 35
dense and bagged 16,0 -
vegetables, green    
cabbages 4,0 -
lettuce 5,0 -
vegetables, legumes    
beans    
- general 8,1 35
- soya 7,4 30
peas 7,8 -
vegetables, root    
general 8,8 -
beetroot 7,4 40
carrots 7,8 35
onions 7 35
turnips 7 35
potatoes    
in bulk 7,6 35
in boxes 4,4 -
sugarbeet    
dried and chopped 2,9 35
raw 7,6 -
wet shreds 10,0 -
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.10 - Stored products - liquids
Products Density γ [kN/m3]
beverages  
beer 10,0
milk 10,0
water, fresh 10,0
wine 10,0
natural oils  
castor oil 9,3
glycerol (glycerine) 12,3
linseed oil 9,2
olive oil 8,8
organic liquids and acids  
alcohol 7,8
ether 7,4
hydrochloric acid (40 % by weight) 11,8
methylated spirit 7,8
nitric acid (91 % by weight) 14,7
sulphuric acid (30 % by weight) 13,7
sulphuric acid (87 % by weight) 17,7
turpentine, white spirit 8,3
hydrocarbons  
aniline 9,8
benzene (benzol) 8,8
coal tar 10,8 to 12,8
creosote 10,8
naphtha 7,8
paraffin (kerosene) 8,3
benzine (benzoline) 6,9
oil, crude (petroleum) 9,8 to 12,8
diesel 8,3
fuel 7,8 to 9,8
heavy 12,3
lubricating 8,8
petrol (gasolene, gasoline) 7,4
liquid gas  
butane 5,7
propane 5,0
other liquids  
mercury 133
red lead paint 59
white lead, in oil 38
sludge, over 50 % by volume water 10,8
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.11 - Stored products - solid fuels
Products Density γ [kN/m3] Angle of repose ϕ [°]
charcoal    
air-filled 4 -
air-free 15 -
coal    
block briquettes, tipped 8 35
block briquettes, stacked 13 -
egg briquettes 8,3 30
coal, raw from pit 10 35
coal in washing pools 12 -
coal dust 7 25
coke 4,0 to 6,5 35 to 45
middlings in the quarry 12,3 35
waste washing tips in colliery 13,7 35
all other kinds of coal 8,3 30 to 35
firewood 5,4 45
lignite/brown coal    
briquettes, tipped 7,8 30
briquettes, stacked 12,8 -
damp 9,8 30 to 40
dry 7,8 35
dust 4,9 25 to 40
low-temperature coke 9,8 40
peat    
black, dried, firmly packed 6 to 9 -
black, dried, loosely tipped 3 to 6 45
NOTE See Section 4.

Table A.12 - Stored products - industrial and general
Products Density γ [kN/m3] Angle of repose ϕ [°]
books and documents    
books and documents 6,0 -
densely stored 8,5 -
filing racks and cabinets 6,0 -
garments and rags, bundled 11,0 -
ice, lumps 8,5 -
leather, piled 10,0 -
paper    
in rolls 15,0 -
piled 11,0 -
rubber 10,0 to 17,0 -
rock salt 22,0 45
salt 12,0 40
sawdust    
dry, bagged 3,0 -
dry, loose 2,5 45
wet, loose 5,0 45
tar, bitumen 14,0 -
NOTE See Section 4.
See also
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